INTRODUCTION
Foreword: This is a guide for those who prefer detail and design. Some of the information might not be for everybody.
Long and short, 4.0 simplified a ton of details. However, that is not to say that detail isn't allowed or has been removed. This is an in-depth look at templates and starship balance in the 4.0 system. Nothing is written here in an official capacity, only the data it originates from, and it is subject to change at any time, so it's up to you to make sure your submissions adhere to rules.

INDEX
AAA - Guide to Role Balance
BBB - Starfighters & Gunships 101
CCC - Freighters 101
DDD - Armament In Detail
EEE - Hyperdrive Scale
ZZZ - Reserved

[BBB] GUIDE TO ROLE BALANCE
Thanks to the the thinning made to the templates in 4.0, creating a starship is now easier than ever. This also means that balancing out a ship for a specific role is now incredibly easy and flexible. This section will go over a breakdown of the new system and some different setups to help you make your ideal ship.
Stat Levels
Technically there are seven degrees (None, Very Low, Low, Average, Moderate, High, Very High, Extreme). On an average ship, everything starts at the Average level. As a stat is decreased, another can be increased (e.g. a Low armament for a Moderate defence). The production value also starts from Mass-Produced and goes down all the way to Unique, allowing another stat increase for each drop in production.
Because of this, one way of planning a ship is starting from a blank slate of None and Unique (zero), then working your way up until you have no more than the following. This method is good to use because there's less room to get confused or lose track.
  • Starfighter - 19
  • Corvette - 19
  • Frigate - 20
  • Cruiser and Above - 22
Hangars are the variable to this because "Average" isn't the same for every size. An average frigate has 1 hangar, so that's 1 more point. An average cruiser has 3 hangars, so Low could be seen as 2, Very Low as 1, and None as 0.
Specializing for a Role
An across-the-board Average ship might be fine for most things, but a jack of all trades is a master of none. You probably want to make something that caters more towards the job you intend to use it for. Since there's no more micro-managing when it comes to laying out a ship's template, you simply have to drop one stat and raise another. It is highly advised that you start with stats that yield the least use/importance and lower them equally until you have enough room to raise important ones proportionately. At the same time, you probably don't want to lower a stat to None or near-none, as that can leave a major hole in the ship's functionality (for example, having a 'None' defence on a sniper ship). In all cases, try to avoid extremes except where affordable.
Archetype Examples
Below are a few different examples of some archetypes you can design a ship around, including the kinds of weapons and technologies you might want to use on them.
Drop Pod Carrier
A platform for rapidly deploying troops and G.I. supplies planetside and to the battlefield. Ideally low on firepower and high on defence. Armour and point defences are important for protecting the ship and its many inhabitants. If going with an anti-capital armament, avoid going too low as to be inefficient against a capital ship's shields, armour and hull. Any firepower is generally used as a deterrent. Hangar space will typically be limited or non-existent in lieu of drop pod launchers and passenger capacity. Quantities vary, but as a rule of thumb, an average-size drop pod with tube takes up about the same room as an average starfighter's bay (12 per hangar).
Electronic Warfare Ship
These are your SIGINT/ELINT/SEWACS and other EWAR vessels. Considering their roles, armament doesn't need to be significant and will almost definitely be below-average; point defences are paramount and launchers may find some use as a decent perimiter-defence. Armour and defences may be important, though speed and maneuverability may be even moreso depending on role, deployment, and whether or not it has fleet support. Ships of this nature will consume a lot of their statistic value with Special Equipment and meaningful Strengths. It is best to focus on one area of EWAR for a particular ship, you'll want to get the most use out of it with its limited fielded quantities and increased vulnerability.
Mobile Artillery
Vessels of this kind usually field heavy, long-range weaponry and excel in planetary bombardment or focused anti-ship fire; effectively battleships in space. Armament degree is usually high, though on the lower end of this, it will at least be focused into powerful batteries. Typically these will have Low to Moderate armour, and sometimes can be dreadfully slow. Point defence weapons are a decent option because these are your big guns, and your enemy will probably have them high on their priority list. Note that a more sniper-like ship can sacrifice defence for mobility.
Anti-Starfighter Ship
When you want to maintain air superiority and protect other ships in the fleet, you use these. They have almost no value when flown solo, except perhaps as a pirate vessel used to hunt freighters and corvettes. Because of this, some of its defensive strength can be offset, relying on the rest of its fleet for protection from enemies too big to swat out of the skies. Speed and maneuverabilty aren't overwhelmingly important, but can be considered if one wants a ship that can relocate its area of effect where it is needed as quickly as a starfighter or bomber battle can migrate (something like Moderate is fine). If factoring in the range of most subcapital weaponry, these are best seated behind the first line where it just covers the engagement distance between hostile and friendly.
For offensive armament, consider capital particle beam cannons, blaster cannon batteries and warhead launchers.
For defensive armament, consider flak cannons and point defences.
Carrier
to be added.
Command Ship
to be added.

[DDD] ARMAMENT IN DETAIL
Arguably the most heavily simplified area of the starship template, lists are now entirely optional. Standard armament consists of blaster cannons and proton torpedoes for sub-capitals, turbolasers, warhead launchers and quad lasers/point defence turrets for capitals. Unlisted defaults to basics such as those. Specified loadouts may still be used, and balancing count still (loosely) functions in 4.0, so all you detail devils and min-maxers rejoice! You may still customize your perfect ideal ship.
In the spoilers below are a list of armament by weapon value, per ship class, and graphs showing the curve. This gives a good idea of what a listed armament should be at every level, on each class of ship. You can use this to determine what level your envisioned armament is, or how much room you have to work with at a given level.
Small Capital
Corvettes (avg. 165m)
?? = Extreme
?? = Very High
88 = High
?? = Moderate
?? = Average
48 = Low
?? = Very Low
Frigates (avg. 375m)
?? = Extreme
?? = Very High
290 = High
?? = Moderate
?? = Average
120 = Low
70 = Very Low
Capital
Cruisers (avg. 925m)
1,360 = Extreme
?? = Very High
910 = High
?? = Moderate
?? = Average
352 = Low
320 = very Low
Star Destroyers (avg. 1,660m)
2,480 = Extreme
?? = Very High
1,965 = High
?? = Moderate
1,340 = Average
940 = Low
600 = Very Low
Supercapital
Battlecruisers (avg. 2,800m)
?? = Extreme
?? = Very High
4,600 = High
?? = Moderate
2,340 = Average
1,280 = Low
?? = Very Low
Flagships (avg. 5,000m)
11,200 = Extreme
?? = Very High
?? = High
?? = Moderate
4,840 = Average
?? = Low
?? = Very Low
Despite the weapon count system being removed, weapons retain a certain value - good for when using a technology submission made during a previous version of the Factory, or when creating a detailed comparison. Modifiers appear to have been taken out of the equation, but as they still affect Chaos tech, they can still be used as a point of reference. From my experience so far, they still apply very well in the new system as long as you don't go nuts (e.g. a rapid-fire Quadruple Heavy Long Range HVG battery). Below is a short list of values and exchange rates I traditionally use when designing a new ship, though keep in mind this is not 100% official information, just a basis I've found works and passes Approval.
Subcapital
0.5 - Heavy Blasters, Light Blaster Cannons
1 - Blaster Cannons, Laser Cannons, Ion Cannons, Chainguns, Single Proton Bomb
2 - Heavy Laser Cannons, Repeating Laser Cannons, Twin Ion Cannons, Particle Cannons, Autocannons, Composite Beam Cannons (fixed)
2 - Concussion Missile Launchers (4-6 heads), Proton Torpedo Launchers (4 heads), Proton Bomb Launcher (2 heads), Nano Missile Launchers
4 - Advanced Concussion Missile Launchers (4-6 heads), Cluster Missile Launchers (24 heads, 6 per salvo)
8 - Rotary Slugthrowers
Capital
1 - As Point Defence: Subcapital Cannons, Chainguns
2 - Turbolasers, Capital Ion Cannons, Composite Beam Cannons (as a point defence)
4 - Heavy Turbolasers, Capital Heavy Ion Cannons, Artillery Cannons, Concussion Missile Launchers (hi-cap)
8 - Cluster Missile Launchers (6 per salvo)
10 - Planetary Turbolasers, Planetary Ion Cannons, Long Range Cannons
Also, here are the old weapon modifiers as a point of reference. Some of it is obviously old, so take from it what you will.
Guns
Light - 0.5x
Repeating - 2x
Heavy - x2
Dual - 2x
Quad - x4
Long Range - x5
Warheads
Homing (FAF) - 2x
Cluster - 4x