Oh my god this is so late. I know. I'm sorry. So, I give you arguably the meatiest and probably most important section - techniques!

Combat Techniques
Echani techniques are characterized by flowing circular motions that allow smooth transition from one technique to the next with very little interruption. These circles serve three main purposes: first, to keep the hands moving and able to defend at all times; second, to keep all techniques consistently flowing and always doing something if not directly attacking; finally, to keep the opponent off-guard as one technique can flow (in theory) into any other basic technique, which prevents an opponent from reading too closely into attacks and predicting it early. This makes an Echani fighter unpredictable yet smooth and flowing, promoting grace and speed over raw strength.

All students of all Echani schools are taught a core set of 19 very basic techniques: five stances, six kicking techniques, five striking techniques and three blocking techniques. While a school will certainly branch out from these at some point and diversify, these techniques are critical to all Echani styles and are taught to everyone. These are taught both on their own and in set combinations of strikes, kicks and blocks while in varying stances, moving through in set patterns.

Stances are used as transition – while they’re usually clear and obvious as to purpose, it’s never intended that you stay in that stance for too long. Each stance will easily change from one to the next. The most obvious thing is that they are low, strong stances, usually with deep knee bends and a very slight lean forwards.
  • Horse stance - Horse stance is the core mainstay of stances, and one of the few that isn’t just used as transition. The feet are two shoulder-widths wide and pointed outwards. The knees are bent deep such that the thighs are almost parallel to the floor. This is a very low, solid stance, with a low center of gravity.
  • Bow stance – Bow stance resembles a primitive bow and arrow, hence the name. The feet are roughly one shoulder width wide and two shoulder widths deep. The back foot is turned out and the leg is straightened, and the front foot points slightly in the same direction with a bent knee, pushed forward. Two-thirds of the body weight should be on the front foot. This stance is primarily used as moving resistance, and to deliver strikes.
  • Crouch stance – Crouch stance is the lowest stance used in Echani. The buttocks are only inches off the floor. One foot is extended with a straight leg and the foot turned perpendicular to the leg. The other knee is bent low and the foot pointed in the same direction as the leg. This stance is used to avoid high techniques and also to help use leg sweeps.
  • Rest stance – Rest stance can be performed in two ways, high or low. High rest stance has one knee sit behind the other, both knees bent and the back heel lifted off the ground. Low rest stance has one thigh behind the other calf, and the back knee is bent such that it is about an inch off the ground, the ball of the back foot still touching the ground.
  • Empty stance – Empty stance is used to avoid leg sweeps and to deliver fast snap kicks off the front foot. The back foot is turned to face outward and the knee bent so that the buttocks are parallel to the ground. The front foot is one shoulder width forward with no weight on it and the ball of the foot on the ground, foot turned straight.
Most kicks are prepared first by lifting the foot to the knee, foot pointing down, with two exceptions. A kick is pushed out by driving the hip through in the direction of the kick to generate power.
  • Front kick – The front kick is a fast, direct kick to the front of the user. It can be performed with either the ball of the foot or the heel. One is used more for faster, snapping kicks (the ball of the foot) and slower, stronger thrust kicks (the heel).
  • Side kick – The side kick uses the outer edge of the foot, also known as the blade, to strike. This can be used for slower thrust and faster snap kicks, but is executed the same in both fashions. The supporting foot twists out in the opposite direction to prevent the ankle from being damaged.
  • Crescent kick – The crescent kick is used mostly for disarming an opponent or for lowering their guard by knocking their hand or wrist away. The lift to the heel is performed first, before a circular motion of the foot is used. A crescent kick can be performed by crossing over the body with the kick first (outside crescent kick, using the blade of the foot) or going out then across the body (inside crescent kick, using the inside edge of the foot).
  • Whirlwind kick – The whirlwind kick is a famous Echani kick known for essentially being a jumping spin kick. The body turns almost one full rotation after jumping off one leg. The other leg is brought around to kick using the shin or instep of the foot, landing on the same leg used to kick with.
  • Hook kick – The hook kick is a deadly and deceptive kick that can be used for a very effective knockout. The leg is lifted to the knee first and then the foot extends to the side of the opponent. From there, it hooks back in using the heel with a hip twist, hence the name. There is a spinning variation in which the leg is crossed over and a one-eighty turn is used, using the heel effectively as a bludgeoning weapon.
  • Leg sweep – The leg sweep is designed to take an opponent off-balance by attacking either one or both legs. The user drops low to crouch stance and swings a fully extended leg around three hundred and sixty degrees, attacking the ankles (and no higher) with the shin and instep of their leg.
Strikes are fairly straightforward. When taught in basic technique sets, the non-striking hand is almost always brought back to the waist, ready to repeat the motion on the other hand. These techniques are also used to intercept oncoming attacks directly by attacking incoming limbs.
  • Straight punch – The straight punch is easily the most common strike in Echani. The fist is closed with the thumb locking in the first two fingers, the wrist held straight and level, the punch delivered in a straight line (hook punches are very uncommon due to shoulder strain) and done using either the first two knuckles if horizontal or the last three knuckles if vertical.
  • Double punch – The double punch is essentially two straight punches delivered horizontally at shoulder level to the sides, to attack two opponents coming in from both sides simultaneously. While uncommon, it is nonetheless effective and useful.
  • Chop strike – The chop strike makes use of the outer side edges of the palm. In both variants, the thumb is tucked in and can be delivered either horizontally or vertically. Vertical strikes tend to roll in then back outside while the horizontal strikes can be likened to the swinging of a sword.
  • Palm strike – The palm strike is one of the mainstays of Echani. It is delivered with the heel of the palm (the bottom), with the fingers and thumb curled very slightly to keep them out of the way. This is a popular option to prevent fingers breaking against solid bone.
  • Spear strike – The spear strike makes use of the fingertips in order to attack. Typically all the fingers are straightened and locked together and delivered in straight-line attacks. However, in some cases, the middle finger can be bent slightly to be in line with the ring and index fingers, slightly reducing the chance of breaking the finger if bone is struck.
These blocks are designed specifically with defensive applications in mind that a strike simply cannot cover. For this reason, a blocking technique is just as important as a strike, and can typically be turned from a strike to a block. The hands can be open or closed in all techniques.
  • Double block – The double block is used to block kicks coming from the sides. One hand crosses the body to rest above the opposite shoulder, while the other arm is straightened downwards and turned either knuckles in or knuckles out.
  • Guard block – The guard block is one of the most common defenses and is executed using the top of the forearm sweeping past the face, down past the groin horizontally or across the center of the body in either direction, which keeps the hand close to return to a fighting guard.
  • Cross block – The cross block is made by crossing the wrists and is typically used for catching low kicks, knees or trapping punches.
Grabbing, Throws and Takedowns
An important part of Echani is grabbing, throwing and taking an opponent to the ground. When an opponent’s balance is not centered (say their head is tilted back too far after being hit, or being pulled into a punch), it is the best time to use the legs to throw or take an opponent to the ground. Almost every throw is done by placing the hip slightly under the opponent’s to get a lower center of gravity, then pulling over an extended leg. These throws must be immediately followed up by a strike to finish the opponent off.

Core Concepts
There are a few critical concepts to the way an Echani fighter needs to act that are shown in all of their techniques. Remembering these principles will keep any Echani fighter at a high level of proficiency and make them able to adapt to any situation using correct technique.
  • The Best Defense Is A Good Offense – With three very specific exceptions, almost every strike should be used to intercept an oncoming attack. This is the reason Echani has so few defense-specific techniques. Even these defenses can be used as strikes in their own way.
  • Strike Vital Points – It is imperative to aim all your attacks at vital points to make them all effective. Vital points include joints, groin, throat, eyes, nose and the solar plexus. It is better to strike once efficiently than ten times to no effect and interrupt an opponent’s attack rhythm by rendering a limb unusable.
  • Weight Forward – There’s always a slight lean forward to every technique to generate some forward momentum. It’s not huge, only a few degrees, but it’s definitely visible. Too far forward and the head becomes a target, too far back and forward momentum goes out the window. Lean slightly forward, eyes on the target.
  • Breathe Out – Breathing out tenses the core muscles (the abdominal muscles and that band around the back) when you strike, so breathing out allows for maximum strength when striking. It also maintains the flow of energy through the body, which is equally important.
  • Stay Rooted – It is extremely important to stay rooted to the ground. This prevents being swept off balance and also helps generate strong technique. Being rooted means two things: firstly, keep your stance low. Two, never over-extend the body and disrupt your center of gravity.
  • Two Hands Together – Both hands work together in every technique. Even if one hand is coming back to the waist when it isn’t striking, it’s doing something, like pulling an opponent into your fist. If one hand remains static during a technique, there must be a very good reason for this.
  • Constant Motion – A student of Echani is always in motion; whether they’re finding a better angle of attack, making it harder for the opponent to hit them, or re-positioning after being hit, standing still and fighting for a long time is not a principle that an Echani fighter ever uses. Movement creates momentum, which is a strong source of power.
  • Hips, Not Shoulders – The common misconception for a strike with the hand is that it is thrown with the shoulder. This is untrue, and can cause muscle damage. All hand techniques generate speed and power through the slight rotation of the hips. The hips connect the upper and lower body together, meaning it has the capacity to generate more power with more full-body force.
  • Limbs Follow The Body – Wherever the body goes, your arms and legs have to follow, given that they’re attached. If your body moves, or turns, your hands and feet will have to follow. Don’t waste your times flinging your arms and trying to attack where your body simply isn’t pointing.
  • No Excess Movement – Every movement is precise and calculated and done deliberately. If something is done, it is done on purpose, whether it is a lure or an extended block to lock an arm and trap it. Many see Echani as a flashy, excessive style, but the flashy and excessive motion is done in training with purpose that many do not understand. Do not waste your energy on needless things. Keep things compact, deliberate and efficient.
  • Your Whole Body Is A Weapon – Your hands, feet, knees and elbows aren’t the only weapon your body is blessed with. Forearms, shins, even foreheads – if you can generate sufficient force with it and it has been hardened, you can use it. Never doubt the strength of a strike using the forearm through the throat, or how hard a kick with the shin can be to the thigh. If you have it and can use it effectively, use it.
  • Mind Over Matter – A fight is always won by the mindset of its fighters. If you walk into a fight believing that you will lose, your mind will make that happen. The more you tell yourself you can’t do something, the more your mind makes it true. Trust in your training, your abilities, keep it simple, and you will walk away victorious.